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Types of therapy
Psychological therapies generally fall into the following categories: behavioural therapies, which focus on cognitions and behaviours, psychoanalytical and psychodynamic therapies, which focus on the unconscious relationship patterns that evolved from childhood, humanistic therapies, which focus on self-development in the ‘here and now’, arts therapies, which use creative arts within the therapeutic process and couples counselling, which looks to resolve issues experienced by couples.
This is a generalisation though and counselling or psychotherapy usually overlaps some of these techniques. Some counsellors or psychotherapists practice a form of ‘integrative‘ therapy, which means they draw on and blend specific types of techniques. Other practitioners work in an ‘eclectic‘ way, which means they take elements of several different models and combine them when working with clients. There are also a number of specific other therapies that can be used.
Below is a breakdown of some of the different psychological therapies available. To find out more about the therapy categories or the individual therapies themselves, take your time to explore the links.
Couples counselling is a type of therapy that looks to aid communication and facilitate change within an intimate relationship. Typically the term couples counselling is applied when the therapy is specifically designed for two people within a relationship. With this in mind, counsellors who offer this form of therapy should have the relevant training to help them work with the dynamics of a couple.
Cognitive and behavioural therapies (also kknown as CBT )
Behavioural therapies are based on the way you think (cognitive) and/or the way you behave. These therapies recognise that it is possible to change, or recondition, our thoughts or behaviour to overcome specific problems.
- Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)
- Behavioural therapy
- Cognitive analytic therapy (CAT)
- Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
- Cognitive therapy
Psychoanalytical and psychodynamic therapies
Psychoanalytical and psychodynamic therapies are based on an individual’s unconscious thoughts and perceptions that have developed throughout their childhood, and how these affect their current behaviour and thoughts.
- Jungian therapy
- Psychoanalytic therapy
- Psychodynamic therapy
- Existential therapy
- Gestalt therapy
- Human Givens psychotherapy
- Person-centred therapy (also known as “client-centred” counselling)
- Reality therapy
- Solution-focused brief therapy
- Transactional analysis
- Transpersonal psychology
Arts therapies involve the use of creative arts such as music, art, drama and dance – in a therapeutic environment.
- Art therapy/Art psychotherapy
- Drama therapy
- Music therapy
Although psychological therapies generally fall into the categories above, there are also a number of other specific therapies too.
- Equine assisted therapy
- Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR)
- Family/Systemic therapy
- Group therapy
- Interpersonal therapy
- Play therapy
- Psychosexual therapy